The sources of international law applied by the community of nations to find the content of international law are listed under Article 38.1 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice: Treaties, customs, and general principles are stated as the three primary sources; and judicial decisions and scholarly writings are expressly designated as the subsidiary sources of international law.
Many scholars agree that the fact that the sources are arranged sequentially in the Article 38 of the ICJ Statute suggests an implicit hierarchy of sources.
The current order of international law, the equality of sovereignty between nations, was formed through the conclusion of the "Peace of Westphalia" in 1648.
Prior to 1648, on the basis of the purpose of war or the legitimacy of war, it sought to distinguish whether the war was a "just war" or not.
Because international law is a relatively new area of law its development and propriety in applicable areas are often subject to dispute.
The modern study of international law starts in the early 19th century, but its origins go back at least to the 16th century, and Alberico Gentili, Francisco de Vitoria and Hugo Grotius, the "fathers of international law." Several legal systems developed in Europe, including the codified systems of continental European states and English common law, based on decisions by judges and not by written codes.
Other areas developed differing legal systems, with the Chinese legal tradition dating back more than four thousand years, although at the end of the 19th century, there was still no written code for civil proceedings.
Once funds are awarded, the Maine Justice Assistance Council will make award decisions.
The major focus of the state’s application will be to prevent and control drug crime and support local law enforcement needs. The grant application is available for review at the DPS website at The State of Maine Department of Public Safety through the Maine Justice Assistance Council seeks proposals from eligible applicants for grant projects under the STOP (Services • Training • Officers • Prosecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program (STOP Program) to support Maine communities in their efforts to develop and strengthen effective law enforcement and prosecution strategies to respond to violent crimes against women and to develop and strengthen victim services in cases involving violent crimes against women.
Certain norms of international law achieve the binding force of peremptory norms (jus cogens) as to include all states with no permissible derogations.